MEMPHIS

MEMPHIS
MEMPHIS (from the Greek Menophreos which in turn was derived from the late Old Kingdom Egyptian Mn-nfr,   meaning "established and beautiful"), ancient city in Lower Egypt, on the west bank of the Nile, approximately 12 mi. (c. 19 km.) south of Cairo, lying partly under the site of the modern village Mit Riheina. According to tradition, Memphis was founded by the legendary Egyptian king Menes (probably the same as King Aha) in about 3100 B.C.E. The Egyptian name Mn-nfr originally designated the pyramid of King Pepi I (c. 2300 B.C.E.) at Saqqara, and was eventually extended to include also the town that grew up around it. By the end of the second millennium the name was probably vocalized "Menufi," although a papyrus from the late 20th Dynasty (c. 1184–1087 B.C.E.), gives the variant reading Mnf, from which the Coptic Menfi, Arabic Menf, and Hebrew Mof were derived. Until the founding of Alexandria, Memphis played a paramount role in Egypt. As the administrative capital of the Old Kingdom, it had many palaces and temples, particularly that of Ptah, the city's creator god (with the Apis bull sacred to Ptah being venerated at Memphis); the remains of these structures can still be seen on the site. Literary texts, lavish in their praise and descriptions of the city, indicate that it was a cosmopolitan metropolis with a large, resident foreign population which included Jews (cf. Jer. 44:1); this has been confirmed by archaeological excavation. Foreign divinities worshiped at Memphis include Resheph, Baal, Astarte, and Qudshu. The eventual destruction of Memphis is predicted in Isaiah 19:13; Jeremiah 2:16; 46:14, 19; and Ezekiel 30:13. The city was not in fact destroyed, although it was besieged and taken by the Persians. Memphis was also the place where it was said Antiochus IV Epiphanes received the crown of Egypt. Archaeological excavations have brought to light the large Ptah temple, the palace of Apries, another large ceremonial palace, shrines of Seti I and Rameses II, an embalming house of the Apis bulls, tombs of the high priests, and various settlement remains. A project to record the scattered remains of Memphis through excavation and survey has been undertaken by D. Jeffreys and H.S. Smith for the Egypt Exploration Society since 1982. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: W.F. Petrie, Memphis, 1 (1909); idem, The Palace of Apries (1909); idem, Meydum and Memphis (1910), 38–46; W.F. Petrie et al., Tarkhan I and Memphis V (1913); A.H. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Onomastica, 2 (1947), 122–6. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Kamil, "Ancient Memphis: Archaeologists Revive Interest in a Famous Egyptian Site," in: Archaeology, 38:4 (1985), 25–32. (Alan Richard Schulman / Shimon Gibson (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Memphis — ist der Name folgender Orte: Memphis (Ägypten), eine antike Stadt in Ägypten in den Vereinigten Staaten: Memphis (Alabama) Memphis (Florida) Memphis (Indiana) Memphis (Michigan) Memphis (Mississippi) Memphis (Missouri) Memphis (Nebraska) Memphis… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Memphis — Memphis, MO U.S. city in Missouri Population (2000): 2061 Housing Units (2000): 1052 Land area (2000): 1.565989 sq. miles (4.055894 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.565989 sq. miles (4.055894 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Memphis — • Ancient capital of Egypt; diocese of the province of Arcadia or Heptanomos, suffragan of Oxyrynchus Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Memphis     Memphis      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • MEMPHIS — MEMPHIS, city in Tennessee, U.S., with a Jewish population of 9,500 (.08 percent of the general population) in 2005. Memphis was first settled in 1818 and the first known Jewish settler, David Hart, arrived in 1838. In the 1840s Jews began to… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Memphis — Memphis. Dort wo der Nil, der mächtige Aegypten beherrschende und befruchtende Strom, noch nicht in viel Zweige gespalten, das sogenannte Delta bildet, wo er noch in seiner ganzen Größe, zwischen dem ihn oft umringenden Gebirge des Nilthales,… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Memphis, AL — U.S. town in Alabama Population (2000): 33 Housing Units (2000): 12 Land area (2000): 0.386959 sq. miles (1.002218 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.004364 sq. miles (0.011303 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.391323 sq. miles (1.013521 sq. km) FIPS code:… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Memphis, FL — U.S. Census Designated Place in Florida Population (2000): 7264 Housing Units (2000): 2832 Land area (2000): 3.162239 sq. miles (8.190161 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.162239 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Memphis, IN — U.S. Census Designated Place in Indiana Population (2000): 400 Housing Units (2000): 168 Land area (2000): 2.498989 sq. miles (6.472351 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.498989 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Memphis, MI — U.S. city in Michigan Population (2000): 1129 Housing Units (2000): 476 Land area (2000): 1.122697 sq. miles (2.907773 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.028461 sq. miles (0.073713 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.151158 sq. miles (2.981486 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Memphis, MO — U.S. city in Missouri Population (2000): 2061 Housing Units (2000): 1052 Land area (2000): 1.565989 sq. miles (4.055894 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.565989 sq. miles (4.055894 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

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